Sticking tape on a frosted glass makes it see through. Air and glass have a very different refractive index, so if you have a rough glass surface, the incoming light is scattered in all directions, thus blurring the image you see through it.
Tape has a similar refractive index as glass, so if you stick it to frosted glass, the sticky material will fill out the little bumps in the glass. The non-sticky side is practically flat, so by sticking tape to the frosted side of glass that’s frosted on one side, you are essentially making it flat again, and making the glass clear. 


Sticking tape on a frosted glass makes it see through. Air and glass have a very different refractive index, so if you have a rough glass surface, the incoming light is scattered in all directions, thus blurring the image you see through it.

Tape has a similar refractive index as glass, so if you stick it to frosted glass, the sticky material will fill out the little bumps in the glass. The non-sticky side is practically flat, so by sticking tape to the frosted side of glass that’s frosted on one side, you are essentially making it flat again, and making the glass clear. 


Anonymous asked:

Hi, I was wondering if you had any information and/or links on this site for the Urban Fantasy genre?

thewritingcafe answered:

Urban Fantasy is a mash up of fantasy, horror, and paranormal, so look at this master post first.

To write an Urban Fantasy, you need to understand the difference between Urban Fantasy and Modern/Contemporary Fantasy. The former has grit, horror, and a bit of noir. The latter is just fantasy set in our modern world (like Harry Potter).




  • the one where you only see color once you meet your soulmate (so you don’t know them until you see them), and it goes away when they die
  • the…

Anonymous asked:

I'm trying to develop the city where my fictional story will take place. Do you have any resources for city planning, or different types of cities and architecture in different climates and cultures--or really anything about creating a city?

clevergirlhelps answered:

I’ve done posts on Arctic citiesunderground cities, and old cities.

City Planning

Planned vs. Unplanned

  • Planned cities. These cities were made before they were settled or substantially renovated after they were settled. Planned cities are more navigable than their unplanned counterparts. Planned cities often use a gridiron plan. Planned cities include Washington, D.C.New York City, and Melbourne.
  • Unplanned cities. These cities were originally small settlements that grew larger and larger without much organization. Unplanned cities are a haphazard dash of roads that often follow old footpaths. Unplanned cities that survive to the modern era usually have been substantially renovated. Unplanned cities include BostonRome, and Paris.


Most cities are near a large body of water. The water supplies the city’s inhabitants and takes away waste. The older the city, the more likely it is to be on the water. If the city is not near water (Las Vegas) or has insufficient water (Ancient Rome), it must be brought in via aqueducts, pipes, etc. A city on the coast will have salt treatment facilities, pipe water in from freshwater springs, or exclusively non-water beverages (fermented drinks, milk, etc.)

If a city is hilly, the most important people/most important buildings will probably be on the tops of the tallest hills. The hills will have names. A city on flat land will be easier to build on. A city built on swampy land (Venice, Chicago, St. Petersburg) will need to deal with the heavy buildings sinking into the muck. A drainage system or levies may need to be constructed to keep the water out of the city.


Before the great and glorious invention of affordable air conditioning, cities in hot or mild climates tended to have more open floor plans, like holes in the ceiling and open gardens within their house. There wasn’t a need to keep air inside the house, where it usually became hotter. Precipitation (chiefly rain) would have been a seasonal or occasional problem. Cities in the mountains or in cold climates do not have open floor plans. The windows are small to prevent heat from escaping. There is a minimum of doorways. All entrances to the house are covered to prevent wind, snow, or sleet from coming in.

Buildings in cold areas need slanted or onion-shaped roofs to displace the weight of the accumulating winter snow. Buildings in hot areas can have flat roofs because the weight of snow isn’t a problem. (Also, you could sleep on a flat roof.) Many buildings in cold-climate cities today have flat roofs, but it is a problem your construction crews should be aware of.


Much of a city’s “character” - including names, architecture, areas of interest, city stereotypes, sports teams, and so on - comes from the people who settled it. You will need to do a historical background before you name or build anything. It doesn’t need to be lengthy. Just list out what ethnic groups settled in the city and who has ruled the city over its history. For example, the city had a large influx of Greek settlers, so many of the older streets have Greek influences. The recent emigration of Indians will not have as large an impact because they haven’t been established as long. Let’s say for the last two hundred years, the city has been ruled by an Indonesian government. The new architecture - especially government buildings - in the city will look Indonesian. The Indonesian buildings will go up alongside Georgian-looking buildings from when the British controlled the city and Chinese-looking buildings from when the Chinese controlled the city. Since the city was largely influenced by Greeks, Indonesians, British, and Chinese, the street/circle/landmark names will be a mishmash of these languages. The name of the city itself likely comes from the first group to have a strong presence there.


The easiest way to start making your city is to divide it into neighborhoods, boroughs, regions, or something similar. There are three ways you can go about this:

  • Culturally. Birds of a feather tend to flock together and this is very true for immigrants. Immigrants live together, within the boundaries of a few city blocks, where they can practice their religion, language, and culture with those of like mind. Many cities in America have a Chinatown and Little Italy for these reasons. People of similar income also tend to live together, so in addition to ethnic borders, you can divide by income. Richer people tend to live outside the city or close to the important buildings. The income boundary can shift over time - say the canal was a big source of income, so all the rich merchants lived there. When the canal went out of use, the rich people moved near the big road and people of lower income moved into the areas near the canal.
  • By service. The financial district is here, the residential is over here, the clothing shops are here, the government is here, and the really good food is over there. It might lead to names like the Shopping District or the Government Block or Embassy Row or the Red Light District. People usually live near their work, so you should plan this alongside neighborhoods divided by income.
  • Geographically. The city’s district names come from the points of the compass, like the North Quarter or the Southwest Section. The district names could also come from landmarks like the Wharf District or Riverside - or even weather patterns, like Foggy Bottom. 

Read More


Anonymous asked:

Do you have any comic recommendations? I have no preferences toward company or character. I've been trying to reach out from my usual batfamily and flashfamily. I'm interested in Hawkeye, Fantastic Four, Hulk, as my sister has told me tons about them already but I'm still searching for recommendations. Anything with a strong and character-driven plot really. Female characters highly appreciated. I'm just really looking for something else, thank you for the help or at least consideration.

queerhawkeye answered:

What up! Sorry for the delay, I’m taking forever to answer questions lately. I’ve been super behind on most of my comics but I’ll tell you about some of my faves.
Also, as always, there are download links for most Marvel comics (try to buy them anyways, if you can!), but I’ll link you to the direct pages of any indie comic, because indie comics need our support. 

  • Ms. Marvel (2014) and Captain Marvel (2014). That post linked there isn’t updated at all but, anyways. Kamala Khan and Carol Danvers are two of the most important superheroines in the entire world; and Kamala was the second WOC to star her own solo run! Both are written by very talented women and have excellent illustrators.
  • Miles Morales: Ultimate Spider-man. There is no Ultimate superhero as important as Miles, there is no Spider-man as important as Miles. And, though I have a lot of issues with Bendis, his writing for Miles’ story has been excellent and the art has always been amazing. 
  • Hawkeye (2012)I really care for Clint Barton, I do. But I care the most about the Clint Barton that Fraction wrote in this run, and the most about a Clint Barton who has Kate Bishop in his life. I really care for Kate Bishop. The entirety of this run has been gorgeous. Dialogues, story, illustration, characterizations. I’m incredibly saddened to know it’s coming to an end soon, but I also can’t wait to re-read it when it’s wrapped up. 
  • All New Ghost Rider. A Latino main character written by a Latino writer! THIS IS NOT A DRILL! A LATINO MAIN CHARACTER WRITTEN BY A LATINO WRITER! 
    I care so much about Robbie Reyes. I care so much about Tradd’s art. I care so much about Felipe’s writing. I care sO MUCH. PLEASE READ GHOST RIDER. 
  • Spider-Girl. All runs from Araña in the late 90’s to Spectacular Spider-Girl in 2010 are important because Anya Corazón is extremely important.
  • Young Avengers. Really, none of the YA runs has been a flawless work of art, so you’ll end up rolling your eyes at the art or wanting to violently murder the writers sooner or later; but the team!!! I care a lot about legacy superheroes. The best run is definitely YA Presents, because it’s all single-issues character-centered stories, but you kind of have to read the rest. 

As far as indie, I read very little specifically because I can’t afford them, and I don’t feel good about pirating independent artists. But I’ve been able to buy the first two numbers of both of these comics a while back, and I’m sure all I haven’t been able to buy has been as amazing. 

  • Watson & Holmes. WATSON AND HOLMES ARE BLACK MEN IN MODERN NEW YORK AND IT’S THE MOST BEAUTIFUL THING TO EVER HAPPEN. Holmes’ characterization is spot on, true to the heart of the original ACD Holmes like few others. Watson is a total babe. The art is to die for and the stories are excellent. Please, buy these comics and donate to their kickstarter for v2 if you can!
  • Sex Criminals. In another episode of ‘Fraction is a damn genius and why do I caRE SO MUCH ABOUT THESE HETEROSEXUALS’; Sex Criminals is hilarious and original and has excellent art and I can never recommend it enough. 

Basically I only care for comics about girls, people of color, queer characters or any combination of the three; so (except for Peter, who’s there because I just love Peter Parker) I think most of these have great chances of being what you’re looking for. 



A tool to use for find Synonyms: Synonym Finder.

This is a great, unique little tool I found by browsing for writing resources. It’s name speaks for itself: it’s a synonym finder.

The site is clean cut, has soothing colors, and to-the point results for any word you look up.

For example, when I look up the word “romance,” I get this:

Synonyms: romance, romanticism
Definition: an exciting and mysterious quality (as of a heroic time or adventure)

Hypernyms: quality
Definition: an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone
Usage: the quality of mercy is not strained—Shakespeare”

I had no idea what a “hypernym” is. Apparently it’s a word with a more general meaning that a more specific word fall under. Like, color is a hypernym for green.

On the right corner there’s a button to make graphs! So you can trace each synonym from it’s root word, and see how far the other synonyms connect in comparison to others.

I really like it, so I’m going to definitely bookmark it on my writing tools list.